COMMENT: 2015 has been declared the year for global action on development. The post-2015 agenda aims to fill the gaps in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and is far more ambitious than ever before.The 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) acknowledge gender equality as not only an integral development goal in itself, but also one that intersects all other goals.
As a result, achieving the gender equality goal is bound to be costly.
India will likely struggle to achieve the SDGs for financial reasons. At present, a shocking 2–3% of Indians pay taxes. Mobilising domestic finance — including optimal tax collection reform — can help supplement the traditional sources of aid.
But the lack of adequate resources may not be the only obstacle to achieving the goals.
In 2013, the ‘Nirbhaya Fund’ was set up to enhance women’s safety after the infamous Delhi bus sexual assault and murder case in December 2012.
But despite a massive corpus of Rs 10 billion (US$150 million), the fund remains largely dormant.
Approximately Rs 8 billion (US$120 million) of the funds remain unused due to a lack of prioritising, planning, or both.
If India commits to achieving the SDGs, it must diversify its domestic financing strategies while also reassessing mechanisms to effectively distribute the existing funds.
India should develop an integrated gender-responsive approach to mobilise resources in a targeted manner. This could prevent inter-sectoral competition for its limited resources.
In the 2015/16 National Budget, the monetary allocation to the Ministry of Women and Child Development was cut by 51%.
This shocking figure translates into cuts and reductions to existing schemes that could lead to a massive setback for gender justice in India.
Ratifying the SDG agenda — with gender equality at its heart — could propel the country back into action.
India has opposed external oversight mechanisms. But for its own benefit, India must devise a ‘people-centric’ approach toward monitoring state-specific and national progress on the road to the internationally ratified commitments.
Climate change and gender
In December 2015, countries reached a universal agreement to limit global warming to two degrees Celsius at the UN Conference on Climate Change in Paris.
Gender plays a relevant role in climate change negotiations as well.
Data shows that climate change exacerbates existing inequalities.
Those in poverty are the most vulnerable to its impacts. Because women and girls make up for a disproportionate 70% of the world’s poor, they are differentially impacted by climate change.
In rural India, women are predominantly responsible for providing food, water and for arranging fuel.
The effects of climate change on soil fertility, water availability and food security have very direct impacts on women. Women and girls face a higher risk of death.
The 2004 earthquake and tsunami claimed the lives of 4 times as many Indian women as men in the affected regions.
As they are the most directly affected section of the population, women at the grassroots level can also be important agents in climate solutions.
Yet global discourse has historically reaffirmed existing gender hierarchies.
Women have traditionally lacked adequate voice and representation in global processes. And innovative local grassroots adaptation strategies have been disconnected from the international agenda.
If the global processes resolve previous shortcomings, and take decisive action for gender equality, then this could be the year that transforms the gender narrative in development. – Edited for clarity and relevance from a report in EastAsiaForum.Org